中美气候领导峰会都承诺了什么?

2015 年9月15日-16日,中美气候智慧型/低碳城市峰会(简称:中美气候领导峰会)在美国加利福尼亚州洛杉矶市成功举办。中美气候领导峰会是2014年《中 美气候变化联合声明》的重要措施之一,致力于加强中美双边的政策对话和务实合作,进一步支持落实两国富有雄心的气候目标。

峰会期间, 11个中国省、市(注1)和18个美国州、市、郡(注2)共同签署了《中美气候领导宣言》(简称:宣言),宣布将在各自所在城市和地区设定富有雄心的目标 和行动计划,报告温室气体排放清单,制定气候行动方案和加强双边伙伴关系和合作,以减少温室气体排放和提高气候适应能力。

根据《宣言》 ,北京、广州和镇江承诺到2020年实现排放峰值,比国家达峰年份提前约10年;深圳和武汉将于2022年达到二氧化碳排放峰值;贵阳、吉林和金昌将最晚 达峰年份确定为2025年,延安为2029年;四川省、海南省提出将于2030年实现峰值。同时,中国城市将采取更加有力的行动措施促进城市间和国际间交 流合作,优化经济结构,促进产业结构转型升级,调整能源结构,加快发展清洁能源、智能电网、低碳交通、节能和新能源汽车、绿色建筑、低碳工业园区和低碳社 区,建立和完善促进碳减排的市场机制,推广低碳技术产品和应用示范等。此外,这11个中国省市共同发起成立“率先达峰城市联盟 (APPC)”,为中国在2030年左右二氧化碳排放达到峰值提供强有力的支持。

美国18个州、市、郡在《宣言》中 各自承诺了至2050年的分阶段的绝对碳减排承诺目标。同时,从提高城市能源供应和消费结构中可再生能源比例, 改善民用和公共建筑能效,推广节能、新能源和替代燃料汽车,强化废弃物管理等方面,美国城市按照各自特点挑选重点领域,提出了更为详细的量化行动目标。

峰会还签署了9项谅解备忘录或合作协议,包括国家发展与改革委员会与美国加利福尼亚州更新2013年谅解备忘录,将进一步在二氧化碳排放权交易实施方面寻求 合作;武汉市政府与美国能源基金会签署谅解备忘录,将在智能电网研发、分布式可再生能源以及低碳交通等领域进行合作;深圳市建筑科学研究院与美国劳伦斯伯 克利国家实验室(LBNL)联合宣布将在中国合作开发新版LBNL’s FlexLab-世界最先进的建筑能源模型等。

注1

11个中国省市分别为:北京、四川、海南、深圳、广州、武汉、贵阳、镇江、吉林、延安和金昌。

注2

18个美国城市、郡、州包括:加利福尼亚(California),康涅狄格(Connecticut),亚特兰大(Atlanta),波士顿(Boston),洛杉矶(Los Angeles),华盛顿(Washington, D.C.),西雅图(Seattle),波特兰 (俄勒冈州)(Portland(OR)),休斯顿(Houston),盐湖城(Salt Lake City),兰开斯特(Lancaster),纽约(New York),奥克兰(Oakland),卡梅尔(印第安纳州)(Carmel (IN)),得梅因(Des Moines),迈阿密戴德郡(Miami-Dade County),凤凰城(Phoenix)和旧金山(San Francisco)。

U.S.-China Climate Leaders’ Declaration

On the Occasion of the First Session of the

U.S.-China Climate-Smart/Low-Carbon Cities Summit

Los Angeles, CA, September 15-16, 2015

 

The United States of America and the People’s Republic of China have a critical role to play in combating global climate change, one of the greatest threats facing humanity. Cities and local governments are often at the forefront of efforts to accelerate the long-term transition to a low-carbon and livable society. They are already leading the way with ambitious actions to combat climate change through promoting energy efficiency, renewable energy, low-carbon transportation, sustainable growth patterns, and other sustainable and low-carbon city policies with co-benefits in providing cleaner air and green jobs and creating resilient and livable cities and towns.

On the occasion of the First Session of the U.S.-China Climate-Smart/Low-Carbon Cities Summit, held in Los Angeles on September 15-16, 2015, one week before President Xi Jinping’s State Visit to Washington, DC, we, the leaders of States, Provinces, Cities, and Counties in China and the United States intend to take enhanced actions to mitigate carbon emissions, increase climate resilience, share experience, and strengthen bilateral cooperation. These actions are intended to support the achievement and implementation of each country’s respective post-2020 national climate targets and enhanced actions announced by President Barack Obama and President Xi Jinping in the historic November 2014 Joint Announcement on Climate Change, and in each country’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution, to accelerate the long-term transition to low-carbon economies, mindful of the goal of limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius.

We, the undersigned leaders, solemnly declare our willingness and determination to lead climate actions in our respective countries and to take the following actions in our respective municipalities and regions:

 

•Establish Ambitious Target(s)

Each municipality, county, or region intends to establish or re-establish ambitious and achievable targets and actions as listed in the Appendix to control greenhouse gas emissions, promote low-carbon development, and build climate resilience.

 

Report on GHG Inventories

Each municipality, county, or region intends to track and report emissions via regular GHG inventories.

 

Establish Climate Action Plans

Each municipality, county, or region intends to create a municipal or regional climate action plan to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and enhance climate resilience.

 

Enhance Bilateral Partnership and Cooperation

Recognizing that regular bilateral dialogue and cooperation is essential for sharing best practices and lessons learned, as well as innovating, demonstrating, and deploying low carbon technologies, we will work toward establishing a U.S.-China Climate Leaders Network, comprised of cities, counties, and regions in the context of U.S.-China Climate-Smart/Low-Carbon Cities Summit, to support sustained partnerships and knowledge-sharing.

 

Appendix

Summary of Targets and Actions

by Municipalities, Counties, and Regions

in the United States and China

 

UNITED STATES

California

  • By 2020, California will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 17% to 1990 levels to 431 million metric tons of CO2e; Generate at least 33% of its electricity from renewable sources.

  • Reduce GHG emissions by 40% below 1990 emission levels by 2030, and 80% by 2050.

 

New Actions By 2030:

  • Increase electricity derived from renewable resources to 50%.

  • Reduce petroleum use in cars and trucks by up to 50%.

  • Double energy efficiency achieved in existing buildings and make heating fuels cleaner.

  • Reduce the release of short-lived climate pollutants, such as methane and black carbon.

  • Increase carbon sequestration on farms and rangelands and in forests and wetlands.

Connecticut

  • •Committed to 10% GHG reduction by 2020 (1990 baseline).

  • •Committed to 80% GHG reduction by 2050 (2001 baseline).

  • •Earlier this year, Governor Malloy issued an executive order establishing the Governor’s Council on Climate Change (GC3). Comprised of 15 members from state agencies, nonprofits, and the business community, the Council is responsible for establishing interim goals that, if met, will ensure the state achieves that 2050 target. The Council will also recommend policies, regulations and legislative actions to meet these targets.

Atlanta

  • •20% by 2020, 40% by 2030, and 80% by 2040 (2009 Baseline).

  • •All commitments are reflected in the Compact of Mayors and recent milestone of 100 million square feet of commercial building space committed to the DoE Better Buildings Challenge. All participants in the Atlanta Better Buildings Challenge commit to reducing energy and water consumption 20% by 2020.

Boston

  • •Committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions 25% by 2020 and 80% by 2050 (baseline is 2005).

  • •Continues to lead in energy efficiency, ranked as the #1 most energy efficient city in the U.S. by the ACEEE and was the first in the nation to adopt Green Buildings Zoning.

Los Angeles

  • •Los Angeles is committed to a 45% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2025, 60% by 2030, and 80% by 2050 (1990 baseline).

  • •By 2017 we will expand the Better Buildings Challenge (BBC) to over 60 million square feet, and avoid 1250 GWh of energy use due to efficiency programs.

  • •By 2025, Los Angeles will eliminate its use of coal-fired electricity.

  • •Mayor Eric Garcetti recently announced a commitment to lease 160 pure battery EV vehicles, a move that will give Los Angeles the largest city-owned pure EV fleet in America. The program commits city departments to the leasing of pure battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to replace aging city vehicles — including those with conventional internal combustion engines.

  • •Los Angeles will release its Draft Climate Action Plan by December 2015

Washington D.C.

  • •Committed to 50% reduction by 2032, 80% by 2050 (2006 baseline).

  • •Mayor recently signed a power purchase agreement for 46MW of wind power that will provide 35% of the District Government’s electricity, avoiding 100,000 tons of carbon emissions every year.

Seattle

  • •Target to be carbon neutral by 2050.

  • •Interim target of 58% Reduction in GHG by 2030.

Portland

  • •80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2050.

  • •40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2030.

  • •Double installed solar on City of Portland facilities by 2020.

  • •Meet 100% of City electricity needs from renewable power.

Houston

  • •Committed to 42% reduction by 2016; 80% reduction by 2050 (2007 baseline).

  • •Mayor Parker is committed to continuing Houston’s leadership as the largest municipal purchaser of renewable energy in the nation, with 50% of the City’s energy coming from renewable sources and a 30 MW solar project soon to be approved.

Salt Lake City

  • •2015 Target: Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from community by 10%, to 4.7 million tons annually, through transportation and energy strategies.

  • •Achieve 15% GHG Reduction from Municipal Operations by 2015 (83,536 tons) – 2008 baseline.

  • •In 2008, Mayor Becker and the Salt Lake City Council signed a joint resolution committing that the City will work to reduce its municipal carbon footprint 20% below the 2005 level by 2020; 50% below the 2005 level by 2040; and, 80% below the 2005 level by 2050.

  • •By 2020, 50% of all energy used for municipal operations will come from renewable resources.

Lancaster

  • •The City of Lancaster's committed goal is to become one of the world's first Net-Zero cities, meaning Lancaster will procure and produce more energy via renewable sources than the total amount of energy consumed by the entire city.

  • •BYD's Bus and Coach plant, as well as its battery factory established in Lancaster, bringing the only Chinese manufacturing facility to North America. Since opening, BYD has developed California's first long-range electric bus, the "Lancaster."

  • •Instituted the Nation's first City-mandated Residential Solar Ordinance, requiring all new residential construction projects to include 1 kilowatt per new home built.

New York

  • •Reduce GHG emissions 80% by 2050 (2005 baseline), 40% reduction by 2030 (1990 baseline).

  • •Targeting a 30% reduction from buildings by 2025.

  • •Issued RFI to procure 100% of City electricity from renewable sources.

  • •All City government buildings to be retrofitted for energy efficiency by 2025.

Oakland

  • •GHG reduction targets from 2005 baseline are the following: 36% by 2020, 83% by 2050.

  • •Retrofitted 100% of trucks and installed shore power at 11 berths at the Port of Oakland, part of a documented success in eliminating more than 165 tons of particulate matter from environmentally sensitive areas since 2005.

  • •Beginning in 2015, the City’s new Zero Waste franchise agreements and expanded services are resulting in emissions reductions of more than 450,000 metric tonnes per year.

Carmel, IN

  • •40% reduction by 2040.

  • •Plan to convert at least 30 more traffic signals to roundabouts – each conversion averaging a savings of 26,000 gallons of fuel per year. With nearly 100 roundabouts open now, Carmel continues to lead the nation as the city with the most roundabouts.

Des Moines

  • •Committed to 25% by 2015 (2012 baseline).

Miami Dade County

  • •In 2008 Miami-Dade County committed to the U.S. Cool Counties goals and objectives, to reduce GHG emissions from 2008 levels by 80% by 2050.

  • •As part of the 2016 update of Miami-Dade County’s community-wide sustainability plan, GreenPrint, the County is setting an interim greenhouse gas emissions reduction goal of 20% relative to 2008 levels by 2020.

  • •Miami International Airport launched The Sustainability Project at MIA, one of the largest energy saving programs ever in the state of Florida and in the eastern U.S. The project focuses on installing $32 million worth of energy-efficient lighting, water conservation retrofits, air conditioning and ventilation upgrades and other measures that will save more than $40 million in utility costs over the next 14 years.

Phoenix

  • •Reduce GHG emissions by 80% by 2050 (2005 baseline).

  • •Reduce GHG emissions for city operations by 15% by 2015 (2009 baseline).

  • •Reduce GHG emissions for city-owned buildings by 20% by 2020 (2009 baseline).

  • •Supply 15% of its energy use in city-owned building operations from renewable energy by 2025.

  • •Created the largest municipal fleet of alternative fuel vehicles in the nation, saving 60 million gallons of petroleum throughout the Phoenix region.

  • •Half of the city’s public works buildings use solar power.

San Francisco

  • •25% reduction by 2017; 40% by 2025; 80% by 2050 (1990 baselines).

  • •The City’s energy supply is already over 40% greenhouse gas free. Developing a new CleanPowerSF program to decrease greenhouse gas emissions from residential and business customers through sourcing more energy from renewable sources.

  • •Announced the City’s diesel fleet will phase out petroleum diesel and replace it with renewable diesel to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality.

 

CHINA

Beijing

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions around 2020.

  • •To increase urban sustainable development level by promoting regional cooperation; to optimize and upgrade economic restructure; to improve the market emission reduction mechanism; to develop and apply advanced low-carbon technologies and products.

Sichuan

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions before 2030.

  • •Put the low-carbon development action plans into practice by application and popularizing of clean energy, smart grid, low-carbon transportation, clean energy vehicles, green building and low-carbon communities, and strive to promote international and regional cooperation.

Hainan

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions by 2030.

  • •Adjust and optimize the industrial structure; accelerate the development of the tourism as the leader of the modern service industry; promote the strategic reform of energy structure with emphasis on the development of clean energy; implement the “ecological province” strategy and strengthen the ecological environment protection. Carry out a province-wide pilot demonstration of low-carbon development.

Shenzhen

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions by 2022.

  • •Develop and implement low-carbon plans and the roadmap; adjust energy structure and promote the use of clean energy; control the emissions of traffic and buildings; promote new energy vehicles; boost massively green buildings; improve carbon emissions trading mechanism.

Guangzhou

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions by the end of 2020.

  • •Make detailed action plan of greenhouse gas control in 2020; adjusting energy structure, controlling the total amount of energy consumption, exploring renewable energy, greatly increasing energy efficiency, promoting green buildings, constructing low-carbon transportation systems, promoting the recycle and reuse of resources, implementing emissions trading, and prioritizing the development of low carbon technology and related industries.

Wuhan

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions around 2022.

  • •Adjust the industrial structure, improve energy mix, develop green transportation, promote green buildings, promote low-carbon consumption, and promote carbon emission trading.

Guiyang

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions in the year 2025.

  • •Accelerate the establishment of a big data oriented modern industrial system. Develop low-carbon transport, low-carbon building and low-carbon communities.

Zhenjiang

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions in 2020.

  • •Establishing a completed and comprehensive city-carbon managing system layered into city and suburban level, industry and enterprise level, and project level. Implement carbon managing mechanisms for enterprises. Implement carbon emission assessment.

Jilin

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions before 2025.

  • •Develop the resource-saving and environment-friendly society; increase the scale of forest carbon sink, advocating green consumption and the low-carbon lifestyle.

Yan’an

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions before 2029.

  • •Accelerate industrial structure adjustment. Improve energy utilization efficiency; change the structure of energy consumption; promote low-carbon key projects; develop new low carbon zone.

Jinchang

  • •To achieve the peaking of CO2 emissions before 2025.

  • •Promote low-carbon energy utilization; promote the upgrade and restructuring of key industries to reduce carbon footprint, with a strong focus on technological development and energy savings in sectors; develop smart transportation systems to improve organization and coordination of transportation; promote green building techniques. In support of the national peaking of CO2 emissions around 2030, the provinces and cities listed above will jointly initiate the establishment of the Alliance of Peaking Pioneer Cities (APPC).